Types of Psychology Degrees

Updated December 2, 2022

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Considering a career in psychology? This guide to psychology schooling explains different types of degrees and what you can do with a degree in psychology.

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A degree in psychology opens the door to a number of exciting and fulfilling careers. This guide to psychology degrees explains the variety of degrees you can earn, what you can do with them, and how to apply.

Psychology Degrees

To become a psychologist, therapist, or counselor, you must earn a clinical degree in psychology — one that prepares you to practice. With a Ph.D. in psychology, you can become a psychologist, but there are other options.

A master's in psychology can prepare you for a career as a therapist or counselor, depending on the state. Each state has different licensing requirements.

You can also use psychology schooling in other careers, such as management, marketing, education, or law, or as an assistant to a psychologist. These careers do not often require a master's in psychology. Some may not require even a bachelor's degree.

Associate Degree in Psychology

With an associate degree in psychology, you have a variety of career options. You can work in social and government services, sales and marketing, corporations or nonprofits, or administration in a psychology department or psychologist's office.

This is the fastest degree in psychology. Most programs take just two years. This also makes it the most affordable psychology degree. You need a high school diploma or a GED to apply. Most community colleges that offer an associate degree are open admission. They may recommend a specific GPA.


Bachelor's Degree in Psychology

A bachelor's degree can start you on the path to eventually earning a Ph.D. in psychology, and a career as a psychologist. With a bachelor's degree in psychology, you can also apply for law school, an MBA, or other graduate programs.

Common careers for someone with a bachelor's degree in psychology include government, management, sales, human resources, and human services. You can earn your degree on campus, in a hybrid program, or online.

You can earn either a bachelor of science (BS) or a bachelor of arts (BA). A BA is often based in the liberal arts and offers a broader area of focus. A BS focuses on research and theory.

Most master's in psychology programs and employers accept either degree. Earning a bachelor's degree takes around four years. You must have a high school diploma or GED certificate to apply.

The recommended GPA depends on the school and its admission requirements.


Master's Degree in Psychology

Depending on the state, you can become a counselor or therapist with a master's in psychology. With this degree, you can also work in human services, as a consultant, or in administration or government.

Many master's students plan to continue their graduate studies with a doctoral degree in psychology, with the goal of becoming a psychologist.

Like a bachelor's degree in psychology, you can earn either a master of science (MS) or master of arts (MA). The MS focuses more on research and theory, and is therefore good preparation for an academic career. A master's in psychology takes around two to three years. Most schools require at least a 3.0 GPA.


Ph.D. Degree in Psychology

After you earn your master's, you have two choices for a psychology doctorate, a Ph.D. or a Psy.D. In general, students who plan to become practicing counseling or clinical psychologists earn either degree. A Ph.D. often makes students more eligible for careers in teaching and research.

A doctoral degree in psychology takes four to seven years to complete. Most programs require at least a 3.0 GPA. Many accept applicants with master's degrees in fields related to psychology, as well as those with psychology degrees. You must be able to show that your master's prepared you as well as a master's in psychology would.

Once you earn your Ph.D. in psychology, many states also require a post-doctoral training year where you practice under the supervision of a licensed psychologist before applying for your own license. Specific requirements vary according to the state.


Psy.D. Degree in Psychology

Both a Psy.D. and a Ph.D. in psychology prepare you to work as a licensed psychologist. All states require a doctorate for this license.

Clinical psychology programs focus on diagnosing and treating mental health conditions. Counseling psychology programs emphasize ways for psychologists to help patients address mental health issues within the context of their environments as well as social justice advocacy. .

Psy.D. graduates are more likely to work in clinics with patients than in academia or research.Both degrees include methodology and research courses. However, the Psy.D. focuses less on these and more on day-to-day practice. You can earn a psychologist license with either degree.

Like a Ph.D., a Psy.D. takes four to seven years to complete. Most applicants have at least a 3.0 GPA. You must be skilled in both qualitative and quantitative research and very comfortable with statistics.

Online Psychology Bachelor's Programs

Figuring out where to apply? These top, accredited schools offer a variety of online degrees. Consider one of these accredited programs, and discover their value today.

What Can You Do With a Psychology Degree?

There are many different disciplines in psychology. Associate and bachelor psychology degrees explore a wider variety of topics. Graduate degrees in psychology become more focused on specific disciplines.

Child Psychology

The field of child psychology studies the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral factors affecting children from infancy through adolescence.

Child psychologists find employment as counselors, therapists, advisors, and researchers. While most positions require at least a master's degree, these specialists must hold a Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree to obtain state licensure to practice in a clinical setting.

Clinical Psychology

The largest area of specialization for psychologists, clinical psychology covers all aspects of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders. Licensed clinical psychologists who hold doctoral degrees will likely find the best career opportunities, entering well-paying positions in healthcare or mental health organizations, schools, government and nonprofit agencies, or private practice.

Counseling Psychology

Counseling psychology provides applications that help people, families, and groups deal with personal issues, emotional and behavioral challenges, and mental conditions.

The minimum qualifications for employment in the field include a master's degree and completing supervised clinical practice hours. While some counselors may operate their own private practice, most find positions at healthcare and mental health organizations, schools, government agencies, and businesses.

Developmental Psychology

Developmental psychology offers insights for understanding the changes and challenges experienced across the lifespan. Specialists in this field treat developmental disorders related to specific stages of life, from childhood to old age.

Although developmental psychologists often need a Ph.D. and state licensure to provide patient services, bachelor's or master's degree-holders may find employment in social work and counseling fields.

Licensed educational psychologists apply their training to improve learning outcomes for diverse groups.These professionals often work with children or adults with autism, ADHD, or dyslexia.

Employers prefer that candidates hold a doctorate in this field, especially for careers as professors and researchers. However, depending on licensing requirements, graduates with a bachelor's or master's may work as behavioral analysts, guidance counselors, or special education assistants.

Forensic Psychology

The criminal justice and legal systems increasingly rely on applications from the field of forensic psychology. Psychologists trained in forensics may provide mental health assessments in trials, prisons, and rehabilitation facilities, offer expert testimony in civil and criminal cases, and assist in criminal investigations.

Most forensic psychology positions require at least a master's degree, in addition to state licensure and professional certifications.

Health Psychology

This field explores the psychological, social, and biological factors that impact mental and physical health. Graduates enter fields as varied as pain management, behavior assessment, and community and public health.

Health psychologists should hold at least a doctorate and a state-issued clinical license. An undergraduate degree, while offering fewer career options, may lead to employment as a mental health counselor or rehabilitation specialist.

Industrial Organizational Psychology

One of the fastest growing fields in the discipline, industrial/organizational psychology applies psychological theories and techniques in work environments to improve employee performance, satisfaction, and safety.

Although some bachelor degree-holders may enter the field in training and facilitating positions, most industrial psychologists have earned an advanced degree, equipping them to conduct research, testing, and assessments.

I/O psychologists often serve in consulting roles addressing issues like leadership development, team-building, and workplace diversity.

Social Psychology

This branch of psychology examines how human thoughts, beliefs, and behavior shape and are shaped by applied or imagined interactions with others. Social psychologists explore topics such as prejudice and implicit bias, interpersonal conflict, bullying, and group dynamics, and apply their knowledge in industry, government, social services, and educational settings. Most careers in social psychology require a doctorate, with an emphasis on research and assessment.

Sports Psychology

Sports psychology develops applications that help athletes overcome mental challenges in order to achieve their full potential. Sports psychologists administer skills assessment and counseling to their clients or conduct research on the psychological factors that affect performance.

While most clinical and counseling positions require a doctorate, graduates with bachelor's or master's degrees may pursue careers as recreational therapists, athletic trainers, and motivational consultants.

Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology Degrees

What is accreditation and why is it important?

Accreditation ensures that schools and programs meet established standards of quality developed by independent accreditation organizations. The American Psychological Association (APA) is the primary accreditation body for doctoral programs. While it does not accredit undergraduate or online programs, the APA has developed curriculum guidelines for postsecondary degrees.

Is psychology a good major?

Psychology ranks among the most popular degrees behind business, healthcare professions, other social sciences, and history. Psychology majors can expect a favorable job outlook as new career prospects expand in healthcare, industry, education, social services, and criminal justice and legal systems. The relevance of psychology to everyday life contributes to its wide acceptance.

What is it like to get a degree in psychology online?

A growing number of schools offer bachelor's, master's, and even doctorates through distance learning platforms. Students may take courses in convenient asynchronous formats that provide open access to class materials, synchronously delivered coursework scheduled at specific times, or hybrid programs that require some on-campus meetings. Most graduate programs require on-site clinical experiences but may offer students the possibility to complete these placements near their homes.

What's the difference between a psychologist and a counselor?

Only those with a doctorate, Ph.D. or Psy.D. and a license to practice may use the title of psychologist. Psychologists apply their training in testing, assessment, and psychotherapy to treat serious mental conditions such bipolar and dissociative disorders. Counselors, on the other hand, may enter the field with a master's degree, offering therapy to clients dealing with emotional and behavioral issues such as anxiety, anger management, and addictions. Most states limit the types of psychological tests that counselors may administer.

How can I pay for my psychology degree?

The cost of undergraduate and graduate degrees may be offset by financial aid in the form of loans, grants, or scholarships. As a first step, prospective psychology students should submit the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) to determine eligibility for government loans and other forms of assistance. Many schools and foundations offer both need-based and merit-based awards, often intended for certain demographic groups or for students interested in specific areas of practice, such as forensic or clinical psychology.


Page Last Reviewed Nov. 24, 2022

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