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A definition of behaviorism as well as some elaboration of the arguments for and against behaviorism.
Behavior analysis is properly part of evolutionary biology, because only evolutionary theory can explain the origins of behavior and because behavior analysis follows the same mode of explanation as evolutionary theory. The resemblance among operant shaping, cultural evolution, and genetic evolution appears clearly only in the light of a general concept of evolutionary process.
Cultural evolution, including the evolution of knowledge, can be modelled through the same basic principles of variation and selection that underly biological evolution. This implies a shift from genes as units of biological information to a new type of units of cultural information: memes. A meme is a cognitive or behavioral pattern that can be transmitted from one individual to another one.
The variability in the behavioral equilibrium established by six basic schedules was characterized. The measures were the pause preceding the first response in each interreinforcement interval; the mean rate of responding in each interreinforcement interval; and the relative frequency of each interresponse time. A display of individual interresponse times as a function of time in the interreinforcement interval indicated clear recurrent responding at somewhat less than 3 Hz in every bird, even after extended exposure to a schedule and regardless of the contingency.
Definitions of the descriptive terms used in behavior analysis.
Political correctness represents a regression in university functioning in which paternal influences are repudiated and a biparental model of authority is replaced by one revolving around a primordial conception of the mother.
Behaviorism is generally characterized as the viewpoint holding that the appropriate subject matter for psychology is behavior and the appropriate methods for psychology are those of the natural sciences. The objective of this tutorial is to promote an understanding of the differences between two of these forms of behaviorism - methodological behaviorism and radical behaviorism.
Terms used in classical conditioning and their definitions.
In the Skinner-box it is possible to change the contingency between the responses and the delivery of reinforcement so that more than one response may be required in order to obtain the reward. A whole range of rules can govern the contingency between responses and reinforcement - these different types of rules are referred to as schedules of reinforcement.
Q methodology was developed in the 1930s and has become increasingly utilized as a means for examining subjective behavior in a rigorous and naturalistic way. One of the advantages of Q methodology is its utility in examining single cases, which, when conjoined with the mathematics of factor analysis, reveals parallels with quantum theory.
Classic paper by Lee J. Cronbach (1957). Discusses the differences between experimental psychology, which is characterized as the study of variance among treatments, and correlational psychology, which is characterized as the study of variance among organisms.
An Anthology of Reviews from the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.