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The Encyclopedia of Psychology

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The Encyclopedia of Psychology is where we record and analyze the evolution of the field. On this page, you will find research submitted by third parties and reviewed by our team.

The information featured is meant for both casual consumption and professional research. We pride ourselves on hosting a strictly-reviewed collection of think pieces and data-driven investigations.

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  • Behaviorism

    A definition of behaviorism as well as some elaboration of the arguments for and against behaviorism.

    Added: February 28, 2004 Hits: 18543

  • Behavior and the General Evolutionary Process

    Behavior analysis is properly part of evolutionary biology, because only evolutionary theory can explain the origins of behavior and because behavior analysis follows the same mode of explanation as evolutionary theory. The resemblance among operant shaping, cultural evolution, and genetic evolution appears clearly only in the light of a general concept of evolutionary process.

    Added: January 11, 2004 Hits: 11899

  • Memetics

    Cultural evolution, including the evolution of knowledge, can be modelled through the same basic principles of variation and selection that underly biological evolution. This implies a shift from genes as units of biological information to a new type of units of cultural information: memes. A meme is a cognitive or behavioral pattern that can be transmitted from one individual to another one.

    Added: August 22, 2000 Hits: 2821

  • Dynamics in the Fine Structure of Schedule-Controlled Behavior

    The variability in the behavioral equilibrium established by six basic schedules was characterized. The measures were the pause preceding the first response in each interreinforcement interval; the mean rate of responding in each interreinforcement interval; and the relative frequency of each interresponse time. A display of individual interresponse times as a function of time in the interreinforcement interval indicated clear recurrent responding at somewhat less than 3 Hz in every bird, even after extended exposure to a schedule and regardless of the contingency.

    Added: June 4, 2000 Hits: 2504

  • Psychodynamics of Political Correctness

    Political correctness represents a regression in university functioning in which paternal influences are repudiated and a biparental model of authority is replaced by one revolving around a primordial conception of the mother.

    Added: February 13, 2000 Hits: 2556

  • Behaviorism Tutorial

    Behaviorism is generally characterized as the viewpoint holding that the appropriate subject matter for psychology is behavior and the appropriate methods for psychology are those of the natural sciences. The objective of this tutorial is to promote an understanding of the differences between two of these forms of behaviorism - methodological behaviorism and radical behaviorism.

    Added: February 7, 2000 Hits: 15792

  • Glossary of Terms for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    Terms used in classical conditioning and their definitions.

    Added: January 30, 2000 Hits: 8093

  • Schedules of Reinforcement

    In the Skinner-box it is possible to change the contingency between the responses and the delivery of reinforcement so that more than one response may be required in order to obtain the reward. A whole range of rules can govern the contingency between responses and reinforcement - these different types of rules are referred to as schedules of reinforcement.

    Added: September 21, 1999 Hits: 3146

  • Subjective Behavior Analysis

    Q methodology was developed in the 1930s and has become increasingly utilized as a means for examining subjective behavior in a rigorous and naturalistic way. One of the advantages of Q methodology is its utility in examining single cases, which, when conjoined with the mathematics of factor analysis, reveals parallels with quantum theory.

    Added: September 21, 1999 Hits: 3154

  • The Two Disciplines of Scientific Psychology

    Classic paper by Lee J. Cronbach (1957). Discusses the differences between experimental psychology, which is characterized as the study of variance among treatments, and correlational psychology, which is characterized as the study of variance among organisms.

    Added: July 23, 1999 Hits: 3651

  • Variations and Selections in Experimental Analysis

    An Anthology of Reviews from the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

    Added: July 22, 1999 Hits: 3335

  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Skinner (1948)

    Skinner's 1948 paper on superstition in pigeons. Responses may be due to accidental correlations. A "must understand" paper.

    Added: March 31, 1999 Hits: 9880