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The Encyclopedia of Psychology
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The Encyclopedia of Psychology is where we record and analyze the evolution of the field. On this page, you will find research submitted by third parties and reviewed by our team.

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  • Work Feedback and the Accuracy of Performance Self-assessments

    An accurate assessment of work is highly advantageous for personnel management. This paper aims to assess the accuracy of performance self-assessments, defined as the agreement between self and supervisor ratings, according to work feedback contexts, and in terms of sources and signs. The Job Feedback Survey and a performance rating scale were administered to a sample of 775 employees in a Municipal Council in the Spanish region of Asturias.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 875

  • Mood State and Recall Biases: the Role of Affect

    In this experiment, mood states were induced by exposure to two film clips, one happy and another sad, without any specific verbal instruction from experimenters. Subsequently, tests of immediate memory were performed. Subjects had to remember lists of positive, negative or neutral words. Results show that watching films produces a reliable and strong bias on remembering but a lesser effect on expression of mood.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 4349

  • Effects of Self-efficacy and Incentive on Physiological Reactivity Performing a Cognitive Task

    The aim of the present experiment was to determine whether both self-efficacy and incentive value exert their effects on autonomic and somatic physiological reactivity in an interactive manner. 32 subjects were assigned to 4 groups resulting from combining two conditions of self-efficacy manipulation (high and low) with two conditions of incentive value manipulation (high and low). All the subjects completed a computer-aided word-chaining task, which involved verbal responses. 4 physiological variables were measured: respiratory and heart rate, electrodermal resistance and electromyography of frontalis muscle.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 6584

  • Accompanying Gulliver: Personal Counseling in Secondary School Education

    This is a review of the contents and methodology of personal counseling for adolescents in secondary education. The approach advocates personal growth as a main goal, and empowerment as a strategy for intervention. At the beginning the framework and the relevant characteristics of the adolescent personality are defined. Later, several issues related to adaptation on the personal level (self-esteem, reasoning, values, etc.) and the social level (communication, assertiveness, group management, etc.) are separately examined.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 1365

  • Intergroup Contact at School and Its Effect on the Social Image of the Physically Handicapped

    Intergroup contact theory considers that continuous interactions among members of majority and minority groups will lead to improvement in relationships among them and change in the social image of minority groups. The purpose of this research is to test how school integration politics, based on this theory, influences the social image of handicapped children.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 563

  • TIDA: A Children's Test to Assess Dysfunctions in the Perception of Colour

    After reviewing the controlling factors of alterations in colour perception, their main characteristics and relevance for primary education, we report the results of applying a new test (TIDA) to a population of schoolchildren with ages ranging from 5 to 7 years. Its diagnostic validity and attractiveness to children are compared with two other tests (Ishihara and CUT). TIDA was highly appealing to children and gave a fair estimate of the severity of colour blindness, though its power to discriminate among different types of this problem has still to be improved.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 1089

  • Development of Personal Traits for Employment: Methodology for Change with Unemployed People

    This paper intends to show a methodological design with a systemic-constructivist approach to working with groups of unemployed people. There is a description of the epistemological principles of the approach and the intervention techniques used. With regard to the latter, which may be based on individuals or groups, there is specific description of the work with the narratives of the participants and the techniques of deconstruction (blurring) and co-construction (amplification).

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 482

  • Indicators of Risk in Families Receiving Attention From Social Services

    This article presents a psycho-social-epidemiological study using family social risk indicators, carried out within an ecological and systemic framework that considers social risk as a circumstance resulting from interactive dynamics within a human community. 296 reports were selected from a total of 500 sent during 1995 by the community social services of the province of Seville to the Family Assistance Programmes of the provincial council. The sample included those reports that contained sufficient information to analyse all of the 45 previously defined risk indicators and their interactions.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 500

  • Contemporary Educational Psychology

    Contemporary Educational Psychology publishes articles that involve the application of psychological theory and science to the educational process. Of particular relevance are descriptions of empirical research and the presentation of theory designed to either explicate or enhance the educational process. In addition, reviews of educational research are encouraged if the research being reviewed involves the application of psychological science to an important educational issue.

    Added: March 27, 2000 Hits: 1500

  • Journal of Environmental Psychology

    The Journal of Environmental Psychology is directed toward individuals in a wide range of disciplines who have an interest in the study of the transactions and interrelationships between people and their sociophysical surroundings (including man-made and natural environments) and the relation of this field to other social and biological sciences and to the environmental professions.

    Added: March 27, 2000 Hits: 984

  • Journal of Vocational Behavior

    The Journal of Vocational Behavior publishes empirical and theoretical articles that expand knowledge of vocational behavior and career development across the life span. Research presented in the journal encompasses the general categories of career choice, implementation, and vocational adjustment and adaptation. The articles contribute to a theoretical understanding of career choice and vocational adjustment and are also valuable for applications in counseling and career development programs in colleges and universities, business and industry, government, and the military.

    Added: March 27, 2000 Hits: 771

  • Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

    Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes features articles that describe original empirical research and theoretical developments in all areas of human decision processes and organizational psychology. The journal emphasizes research that contributes to the development of principles or theories relevant to psychological processes.

    Added: March 27, 2000 Hits: 1097