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In accordance with some new perspectives in gerontology, we present an optimistic vision of aging that gives form to what has been called "successful aging". In order to do so we analyse two complementary ways of understanding how people adapt to this stage in their lives: a) the "selective optimisation with compensation" model, which focuses on establishing the limits and possibilities of functioning in old age, and b) "the stress model applied to old age", which emphasises people's capacity for coping with changing or difficult situations that may appear in old age.
An accurate assessment of work is highly advantageous for personnel management. This paper aims to assess the accuracy of performance self-assessments, defined as the agreement between self and supervisor ratings, according to work feedback contexts, and in terms of sources and signs. The Job Feedback Survey and a performance rating scale were administered to a sample of 775 employees in a Municipal Council in the Spanish region of Asturias.
In this experiment, mood states were induced by exposure to two film clips, one happy and another sad, without any specific verbal instruction from experimenters. Subsequently, tests of immediate memory were performed. Subjects had to remember lists of positive, negative or neutral words. Results show that watching films produces a reliable and strong bias on remembering but a lesser effect on expression of mood.
The aim of the present experiment was to determine whether both self-efficacy and incentive value exert their effects on autonomic and somatic physiological reactivity in an interactive manner. 32 subjects were assigned to 4 groups resulting from combining two conditions of self-efficacy manipulation (high and low) with two conditions of incentive value manipulation (high and low). All the subjects completed a computer-aided word-chaining task, which involved verbal responses. 4 physiological variables were measured: respiratory and heart rate, electrodermal resistance and electromyography of frontalis muscle.
This is a review of the contents and methodology of personal counseling for adolescents in secondary education. The approach advocates personal growth as a main goal, and empowerment as a strategy for intervention. At the beginning the framework and the relevant characteristics of the adolescent personality are defined. Later, several issues related to adaptation on the personal level (self-esteem, reasoning, values, etc.) and the social level (communication, assertiveness, group management, etc.) are separately examined.
Intergroup contact theory considers that continuous interactions among members of majority and minority groups will lead to improvement in relationships among them and change in the social image of minority groups. The purpose of this research is to test how school integration politics, based on this theory, influences the social image of handicapped children.
After reviewing the controlling factors of alterations in colour perception, their main characteristics and relevance for primary education, we report the results of applying a new test (TIDA) to a population of schoolchildren with ages ranging from 5 to 7 years. Its diagnostic validity and attractiveness to children are compared with two other tests (Ishihara and CUT). TIDA was highly appealing to children and gave a fair estimate of the severity of colour blindness, though its power to discriminate among different types of this problem has still to be improved.
This paper intends to show a methodological design with a systemic-constructivist approach to working with groups of unemployed people. There is a description of the epistemological principles of the approach and the intervention techniques used. With regard to the latter, which may be based on individuals or groups, there is specific description of the work with the narratives of the participants and the techniques of deconstruction (blurring) and co-construction (amplification).
This article presents a psycho-social-epidemiological study using family social risk indicators, carried out within an ecological and systemic framework that considers social risk as a circumstance resulting from interactive dynamics within a human community. 296 reports were selected from a total of 500 sent during 1995 by the community social services of the province of Seville to the Family Assistance Programmes of the provincial council. The sample included those reports that contained sufficient information to analyse all of the 45 previously defined risk indicators and their interactions.