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The Encyclopedia of Psychology
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  • Behavior Genetics

    Added: March 29, 2000 Hits: 1944

  • Effect of Addictive History on Conditioned Responses Anticipatory to the Effects of Heroin

    The object of this study was to examine the direction and intensity of the anticipatory conditioned responses of mimetic character (conditioned sensitivity) and of compensatory character (conditioned abstinence) to the analgesic and subjective effects of heroin. There were four different groups, 16 men in each: G1, non-addicts; G2, occasional users; G3, non-detoxified addicts; G4, detoxified addicts. The responses, heart rate (HR), electrodermal activity (EA), desire for heroin (HD), withdrawal symptoms self-perception (WSS), and subjective symptoms mimetic to those induced by heroin (SMS) were evaluated before and after the projection of two films, one with neutral stimuli, the other with heroin-related stimuli.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 1009

  • Effects of Alcohol on Divided Attention and on Accuracy of Attentional Shift

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 1338

  • The Problem of Tobacco Addiction: Meta-analysis of Behavioural Treatments in Spain

    This work presents the results of a meta-analytic study on the effectiveness of multi-component programs in the treatment of subjects addicted to smoking. An exhaustive literature search identified 16 empirical studies carried out in Spain from 1980 to 1996, providing a total of 37 independent works with data from 1,979 subjects. The results showed a clear global effectiveness of behavioural treatments, although this was reduced by half after 18 months of follow-up.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 637

  • Temporal Course of the Basic Components of Love Throughout Relationships

    In a recent work (C. Yela, 1996) a structural theoretical model of love was proposed, introducing some variations on Sternberg's model (1986), and affirming four basic dimensions: Erotic Passion, Romantic Passion, Intimacy and Commitment. In this work, we aim to test the dynamic side of the model, that is, the temporal course of the components throughout a relationship. Thus, we applied the same scales (including items from Sternberg and other authors) to a sample of 412 subjects. Global analysis of the evolution of the components seems to suggest the existence of three main stages in love relationships: "Being in love", "Passional love" and "Companionate love".

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 12687

  • Application of Overcorrection and Reinforcement in a Mental Handicap Case

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 670

  • Behavioural Treatment of Auditory Hallucinations in a Schizophrenic Outpatient

    In this paper we present a case-study of a behavioural intervention to modify auditory hallucinations in a schizophrenic patient. The results showed a significant decrease of hallucinations and an improvement in his social and personal functioning. The results of the follow-up showed that these benefits remained 5, 12, 21 and 24 months after the end of the treatment.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 1282

  • Cognitive Features of Schizotypal Personality

    This paper examines the relationship between schizotypal personality and high-risk neuropsychological markers for schizophrenia. The sample consisted of 726 subjects, aged 14 to 20, divided into two groups according to schizotypal level (measured by the Multidimensional Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire, MSTQ). A comparison of the two groups was made by computing errors in several cognitive tasks (Category Test, CAT; Word Recognition Test, TRP; Visual Working Memory Task, PVMO-1; and Working Memory Verbal Task, PVMO-2).

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 3169

  • Factors which Predict the Effectiveness of Different Treatments of Mild Depression or Dysphoria

    Research on depression indicates different predictive factors for the development of depressive behaviour. In spite of this, cognitive-behavioural treatment is being applied to the general population of depressive subjects. In this study, two groups were formed from a sample of 236 mild depressive or dysphoric adolescents: the "cognitive dysphoric" group, composed of subjects with depressive attributional style, and the "behavioural dysphoric" group, made up of subjects with deficient social behaviour. We used these two groups to compare the effectiveness of applying a treatment matched with the type of dysphoria and a nonmatched treatment.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 658

  • Integrated Psychological Treatment for Schizophrenic Patients

    The results of this study are based on a sample of 35 schizophrenic patients (20 patients in a therapy group and 15 in a control group). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the groups. Patients assigned to the therapy group received a one-year integrated psychological program, which consisted of four IPT subprograms, and psychoeducational and behavioural training sessions.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 557

  • Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Fear of Flying

    In this work we present the preliminary results for the validation of a systematic desensitization programme applied to fear of flying. The programme is made up of three phases: the first consists of four sessions in relaxation and imagination training, the second phase has three sessions focusing on the elaboration of the phobic stimulus hierarchy (travelling by plane); the third, with a minimum of five and maximum of eight sessions, deals with the application of the systematic desensitization, together with stop thinking. The programme was applied to 20 patients (treatment group), while 21 patients made up the waiting-control group.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 752

  • Emotional Participation in Decision-making

    The results of recent neurophysiological and neuropsychological research make it necessary to take into account the participation of emotions in decision processes. The amygdala, which has revealed itself as a structure capable of assigning emotional meaning to environmental stimuli (assessment) gives rise to a series of reactions that include motor, autonomic, endocrine and central nervous system adaptations (emotional expression). All of these changes also feed back on the brain, producing what is known as emotional experience or feelings.

    Added: March 28, 2000 Hits: 4386