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Repeated fabrication of physical illness--usually acute, dramatic, and convincing--by a person who wanders from hospital to hospital for treatment. Munchausen patients may simulate many physical disorders (eg, MI, hematemesis, hemoptysis, acute abdominal conditions, FUO). A patient's abdominal wall may be a crisscross of scars, or a digit or a limb may have been amputated.
A disorder characterized by recurrent, unwanted, intrusive ideas, images, or impulses that seem silly, weird, nasty, or horrible (obsessions) and by urges to do something that will lessen the discomfort due to the obsessions (compulsions). Obsessive-compulsive disorder occurs about equally in men and women and affects 1.6% of the population during any 6-mo period.
Panic attacks are common, affecting > 1/3 of the population in a single year. Most persons recover without treatment; a few develop panic disorder. Panic disorder is uncommon, affecting < 1% of the population in a 6-mo period. Panic disorder usually begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects women two to three times more often than men.
Disorders characterized by long-standing, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors that involve inanimate objects, actual or imagined suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner, or nonconsenting partners and that are associated with clinically important distress or disability. These arousal patterns are considered deviant because they are often obligatory for sexual functioning (ie, erection or orgasm cannot occur without the stimulus), may involve inappropriate partners (eg, children), and cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
Disorders involving persistent, unrealistic, yet intense anxiety that, unlike the free-floating anxiety of panic disorder, is attached to external situations or stimuli. Persons who have a phobia avoid such situations or stimuli or endure them only with great distress. But they retain insight and recognize the excessiveness of their anxiety.
A common and serious mental disorder characterized by loss of contact with reality (psychosis), hallucinations (false perceptions), delusions (false beliefs), abnormal thinking, flattened affect (restricted range of emotions), diminished motivation, and disturbed work and social functioning. Worldwide, the prevalence of schizophrenia appears to be 1%, although pockets of higher or lower prevalence exist. In the USA, patients with schizophrenia occupy about 1/4 of all hospital beds and account for about 20% of all social security disability days.
Stress disorders can take the form of acute stress disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder. Acute stress disorder is a brief period of intrusive recollections occurring very soon after a witnessed or experienced overwhelming traumatic event. Posttraumatic stress disorder is recurring, intrusive recollections of an overwhelming traumatic event.
Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read. An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction.
While babies may not speak their first word for a year, they are born ready to communicate with a rich vocabulary of body movements, cries and visual responses: all part of the complex language of infant behavior. The Brazelton Scale, named after its key developer, Dr. T. Berry Brazelton, provides a guide that helps parents, health care providers and researchers understand the newborn's language.
The British Association for Counselling is a learned society whose members comprise individuals and organisations committed to counselling.
A list of adult, child, and personality disorders and general treatment guidelines.
The American Pain Society is a multidisciplinary organization of basic and clinical scientists, practicing clinicians, policy analysts, and others. The mission of the American Pain Society is to advance pain-related research, education, treatment and professional practice.