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The Encyclopedia of Psychology
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The Encyclopedia of Psychology is where we record and analyze the evolution of the field. On this page, you will find research submitted by third parties and reviewed by our team.

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  • Combining Love and Limits in Authoritative Parenting

    In contrast to the common practice of pitting love and limits against each other, several research programs have shown that optimal parenting combines the two. This paper outlines a conditional sequence model of optimal disciplinary responses and shows its consistency with a wide range of research. The model suggests that optimal disciplinary responses begin with less severe tactics, such as reasoning, but proceed to firmer disciplinary tactics when the initial tactic achieves neither compliance nor an acceptable compromise.

    Added: June 5, 2000 Hits: 4816

  • Dynamics in the Fine Structure of Schedule-Controlled Behavior

    The variability in the behavioral equilibrium established by six basic schedules was characterized. The measures were the pause preceding the first response in each interreinforcement interval; the mean rate of responding in each interreinforcement interval; and the relative frequency of each interresponse time. A display of individual interresponse times as a function of time in the interreinforcement interval indicated clear recurrent responding at somewhat less than 3 Hz in every bird, even after extended exposure to a schedule and regardless of the contingency.

    Added: June 4, 2000 Hits: 2504

  • - Lifelong Learning Starts Here, brought to you by Discount School Supply, is designed to help you start children down a path of lifelong learning. This is a dynamic opportunity to discuss issues with your colleagues, find an interesting article, share an idea, or simply have a great time using the resources here at

    Added: June 4, 2000 Hits: 3071

  • Memory: How Do We Remember What We Know?

    This chapter discusses the capabilities and limitations of several components of the memory system. Sensory information storage and short-term memory are beset by severe limitations of capacity, while long-term memory, for all practical purposes, has a virtually infinite capacity. With long-term memory, the problems concern getting information into it and retrieving information once it is there, not physical limits on the amount of information that may be stored.

    Added: June 4, 2000 Hits: 17684

  • Psychology of Religion in the USA

    The psychological study of religion in the USA illustrates tensions and opportunities that exist between psychology and religion. It also demonstrates the multifaceted views taken by psychologists as they address areas of living that have personal implications. In this article I summarize how American psychologists have dealt with religion in their profession, and characterize the psychology of religion as a field of inquiry.

    Added: June 4, 2000 Hits: 2583

  • Born To Explore! The Other Side of ADD

    Positive and alternative information about attention deficit disorder, including creativity, giftedness, temperament diversity, allergies and nutrition.

    Added: June 3, 2000 Hits: 2736

  • The You Can Handle Them All Web Site -- A Discipline and Behavior Management Resource

    A great resource for parents, teachers, and administrators who need to deal with children and their behavior. Learn how to handle over 117 different behaviors, and how to change unacceptable behavior to acceptable behavior.

    Added: June 3, 2000 Hits: 1044

  • Excerpts from the Archives of the Narcissism Study List

    Hundreds of excerpts from the archives of the Narcissism Revisited Study List - concerned with the Narcissistic Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism.

    Added: June 2, 2000 Hits: 1783

  • Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited

    A book-length psychodynamic essay using a new vocabulary concerned with the Narcissistic Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism.

    Added: June 2, 2000 Hits: 1731

  • PSYCHOLOGY.NET.RU-PsychologyWorld

    Russian psychological site (in Russian).

    Added: May 31, 2000 Hits: 502

  • Helping Couples To

    There has recently been a splash of articles in the media saying that you can predict which couples are heading for a divorce. According to research by Dr. John Gottman the key is the ratio of hurtful statements to caring statements. He's actually produced a specific set of numbers that is supposed to provide the cut-off point for a couple being at risk. While I can't vouch for Dr. Gottman's mathematics, I can support his basic premise. Typically the most damaged relationships that I work with are those with a history of verbally abusing each other when they get mad. In essence, they don't know how to "fight fairly".

    Added: May 30, 2000 Hits: 8341

  • Is Golf a Marital and Family Problem?

    As spring arrives, golf becomes a major topic for many of the couples I see. The game has exploded in popularity over the past decade for both men and women. But some men seem to become glazed over as the grass turns green, unable to think about much more than their handicaps. One of the problems with the game, as it pertains to relationships, is the amount of time it takes to play a round of golf. Add to that the strong desire to watch golf on television plus the need to practice driving and putting. You can see where being a "golf widow" is far more serious than being a "football widow."

    Added: May 30, 2000 Hits: 1578