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The Encyclopedia of Psychology
Page 120

The Encyclopedia of Psychology is where we record and analyze the evolution of the field. On this page, you will find research submitted by third parties and reviewed by our team.

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  • Contiguity Theory (E. Guthrie)

    Guthrie's contiguity theory specifies that "a combination of stimuli which has accompanied a movement will on its recurrence tend to be followed by that movement". According to Guthrie, all learning was a consequence of association between a particular stimulus and response. Futhermore, Guthrie argued that stimuli and responses affect specific sensory-motor patterns; what is learned are movements, not behaviors.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 3996

  • Drive Reduction Theory (C. Hull)

    Hull developed a version of behaviorism in which the stimulus (S) affects the organism (O) and the resulting response (R) depends upon characteristics of both O and S. In other words, Hull was interested in studying intervening variables that affected behavior such as initial drive, incentives, inhibitors, and prior training (habit strength). Like other forms of behavior theory, reinforcement is the primary factor that determines learning.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 3397

  • How Animals Learn

    Sea World trainers use operant conditioning techniques to train marine mammals. In addition, the animals at Sea World often learn through observational learning. Both types of learning are explained.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 3800

  • Schedules of Reinforcement

    A whole range of rules can govern the contingency between responses and reinforcement - these different types of rules are referred to as schedules of reinforcement. Most of these schedules of reinforcement can be divided into schedules in which the contingency depends on the number of responses and those where the contingency depends on their timing.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 3124

  • Behavioral Medicine Associates, Inc.

    An estimated 700 clinicians are using neurotherapy in the U.S. Most psychologists and physicians simply have not been educated in the clinical applications of EEG biofeedback and have not read the existing research and clinical literature, in spite of the fact that applications to anxiety, epilepsy and attentional deficits date back to the 1970's.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 1287

  • Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies

    The Cambridge Center's mission is to help people find effective solutions to behavior problems. In essence, the Center is a connecting link between the research community and society, seeking to bridge this gap by sponsoring activities that disseminate and interpret behavioral research findings for the benefit of those in society whose problems involve human behavior.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 2070

  • Lab Animal's Buyers' Guide

    This guide contains address information, along with a listing of the products and services of more than 500 companies in the laboratory animal science marketplace. There are more than 800 products and services listed.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 299

  • Learning in Extensive-Form Games:

    This paper looks at the ability of simple learning models to track the behavior observed in a body of experimental data concerned with three extensive form games with similar perfect equilibria. (in pdf)

    Added: December 8, 1998 Hits: 522

  • Canadian Psychology

    The Journal of Canadian Psychology.

    Added: December 8, 1998 Hits: 980

  • The B. F. Skinner Foundation

    The B. F. Skinner Foundation was established in 1987 to publish significant literary and scientific works in the analysis of behavior and to educate both professionals and the public about the science of behavior.

    Added: December 6, 1998 Hits: 1803

  • Choice In Dying

    Choice In Dying, the inventor of living wills in 1967, is dedicated to fostering communication about complex end-of-life decisions.

    Added: December 6, 1998 Hits: 3552

  • Internal Validity Tutorial

    A tutorial on validity. Part of a experimental design course.

    Added: December 6, 1998 Hits: 1875