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The Encyclopedia of Psychology
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The Encyclopedia of Psychology is where we record and analyze the evolution of the field. On this page, you will find research submitted by third parties and reviewed by our team.

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  • Division 25 of the American Psychological Association

    Among the APA divisions that advance psychology as a natural science, the Division for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior is perhaps unique in its emphasis on behavior as a subject matter in its own right.undertakes research on basic behavioral processes in a temporal and biological context.behavior-environment relationships of relatively immediate individual , social, and cultural importance.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 1203

  • Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it John B. Watson (1913).

    Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. John B. Watson (1913).

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 7920

  • The Operant Conditioning of Human Motor Behavior

    This paper reports procedures for the direct application of the variables defining the paradigm for operant conditioning to human behavior and shows that human beings act very much indeed like experimental animals when they are subjected to the same exper imental treatments. It suggests that direct application of conditioning principles to some categories of human behavior may be justified. The procedures are simple and they may be followed by anyone, with a minimum of equipment.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 3198

  • Conditioned Emotional Reactions By John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner(1920)

    Classic paper by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner(1920) where an infant, Albert B., was conditioned to show fear to various stimuli. It is hypothesized that many phobias are either direct or transferred conditioned emotional reactions.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 4140

  • Behavior OnLine

    Links for practioners of psychology.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 1464

  • Interpreting Cognitive Phenomena: Review of Donahoe and Palmer

    Donahoe and Palmer's Learning and Complex Behavior presents a carefully reasoned case in favor of hierarchical integration based on a single, small set of organizing principles. The book gives serious attention to research findings that have been generated in the traditions of cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics. In doing this, however, it attempts to show explicitly how those findings can be interpreted as products of learning histories involving relatively simple and general processes of behavioral selection.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 2151

  • Developmentalism: An Obscure but Pervasive Restriction on Educational Improvement

    Despite continuing criticism of public education, experimentally demonstrated and field tested teaching methods have been ignored, rejected, and abandoned. Instead of a stable consensus regarding best teaching practices, there seems only an unending succession of innovationsInstead of effective interventions, it seeks the preservation of a postulated natural perfection.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 610

  • Connectionism (E. Thorndike)

    The learning theory of Thorndike represents the original S-R framework of behavioral psychology: Learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and responses. Such associations or "habits" become strengthened or weakened by the nature and frequency of the S-R pairings.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 6260

  • Contiguity Theory (E. Guthrie)

    Guthrie's contiguity theory specifies that "a combination of stimuli which has accompanied a movement will on its recurrence tend to be followed by that movement". According to Guthrie, all learning was a consequence of association between a particular stimulus and response. Futhermore, Guthrie argued that stimuli and responses affect specific sensory-motor patterns; what is learned are movements, not behaviors.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 3996

  • Drive Reduction Theory (C. Hull)

    Hull developed a version of behaviorism in which the stimulus (S) affects the organism (O) and the resulting response (R) depends upon characteristics of both O and S. In other words, Hull was interested in studying intervening variables that affected behavior such as initial drive, incentives, inhibitors, and prior training (habit strength). Like other forms of behavior theory, reinforcement is the primary factor that determines learning.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 3397

  • How Animals Learn

    Sea World trainers use operant conditioning techniques to train marine mammals. In addition, the animals at Sea World often learn through observational learning. Both types of learning are explained.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 3800

  • Schedules of Reinforcement

    A whole range of rules can govern the contingency between responses and reinforcement - these different types of rules are referred to as schedules of reinforcement. Most of these schedules of reinforcement can be divided into schedules in which the contingency depends on the number of responses and those where the contingency depends on their timing.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 3124