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The Encyclopedia of Psychology
Page 119

The Encyclopedia of Psychology is where we record and analyze the evolution of the field. On this page, you will find research submitted by third parties and reviewed by our team.

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  • The Prisoners' Dilemma

    Prisoners' Dilemma is a game which has been and continues to be studied by people in a variety of disciplines, ranging from biology through sociology and public policy. Among its interesting characteristics are that it is a "non-zero-sum"game: the best strategy for a given player is often one that increases the payoff to one's partner as well.

    Added: December 11, 1998 Hits: 1411

  • Strunk, William. 1918. The Elements of Style

    This book is intended for use in English courses in which the practice of composition is combined with the study of literature. It aims to give in brief space the principal requirements of plain English style.

    Added: December 11, 1998 Hits: 358

  • Classical and Operant Conditioning in Drosophila at the Flight Simulator

    The brain's primary objective is to carry out certain adaptive behaviors. It is fine-tuned by evolution to safely govern its carrier through life and to achieve successful reproduction. There are two alternatives to accomplish this task: by innate behavior programs (e.g. reflexes, stimulus-response chains etc.) adapted by evolution or acquired behavioral traits, adapted by experience.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 4065

  • The Misbehavior of Organisms Keller Breland and Marian Breland (1961)

    The Misbehavior of Organisms: Keller Breland and Marian Breland. When what the experimenter wants and/or expects runs into the animal's instincts.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 1739

  • Division 25 of the American Psychological Association

    Among the APA divisions that advance psychology as a natural science, the Division for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior is perhaps unique in its emphasis on behavior as a subject matter in its own right.undertakes research on basic behavioral processes in a temporal and biological context.behavior-environment relationships of relatively immediate individual , social, and cultural importance.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 1203

  • Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it John B. Watson (1913).

    Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. John B. Watson (1913).

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 7920

  • The Operant Conditioning of Human Motor Behavior

    This paper reports procedures for the direct application of the variables defining the paradigm for operant conditioning to human behavior and shows that human beings act very much indeed like experimental animals when they are subjected to the same exper imental treatments. It suggests that direct application of conditioning principles to some categories of human behavior may be justified. The procedures are simple and they may be followed by anyone, with a minimum of equipment.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 3198

  • Conditioned Emotional Reactions By John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner(1920)

    Classic paper by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner(1920) where an infant, Albert B., was conditioned to show fear to various stimuli. It is hypothesized that many phobias are either direct or transferred conditioned emotional reactions.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 4140

  • Behavior OnLine

    Links for practioners of psychology.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 1464

  • Interpreting Cognitive Phenomena: Review of Donahoe and Palmer

    Donahoe and Palmer's Learning and Complex Behavior presents a carefully reasoned case in favor of hierarchical integration based on a single, small set of organizing principles. The book gives serious attention to research findings that have been generated in the traditions of cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics. In doing this, however, it attempts to show explicitly how those findings can be interpreted as products of learning histories involving relatively simple and general processes of behavioral selection.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 2151

  • Developmentalism: An Obscure but Pervasive Restriction on Educational Improvement

    Despite continuing criticism of public education, experimentally demonstrated and field tested teaching methods have been ignored, rejected, and abandoned. Instead of a stable consensus regarding best teaching practices, there seems only an unending succession of innovationsInstead of effective interventions, it seeks the preservation of a postulated natural perfection.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 610

  • Connectionism (E. Thorndike)

    The learning theory of Thorndike represents the original S-R framework of behavioral psychology: Learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and responses. Such associations or "habits" become strengthened or weakened by the nature and frequency of the S-R pairings.

    Added: December 9, 1998 Hits: 6260