The Encyclopedia of Psychology is where we record and analyze the evolution of the field. On this page, you will find research submitted by third parties and reviewed by our team.
The information featured is meant for both casual consumption and professional research. We pride ourselves on hosting a strictly-reviewed collection of think pieces and data-driven investigations.
Submit to Add Your Site
If you have a resource you feel should be listed, please use this form to have it approved. We individually review each submission, so be sure to fill in every field to expedite the process. Should your resource pass muster, we will notify you of our plans to post it.
To make changes to a listed resource, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org with URL of the resource, the issue, the fix and your name. This will allow you to send your request directly to our editors, who can then adjust the resource in short order.
Disclaimer: While we thoroughly vet all third party resources, we are not responsible for the information contained within a source we do not own. The views presented in the encyclopedia are not necessarily the views of our organization. Beyond hosting links to their material, we have no affiliation with these entities.
At any time, the owner of a resource may request his or her material be removed from our encyclopedia. If you have submitted a resource that does not belong to you, please note that we will comply with all DRM requests.
Search Our Encyclopedia of Psychology Directory
Prisoners' Dilemma is a game which has been and continues to be studied by people in a variety of disciplines, ranging from biology through sociology and public policy. Among its interesting characteristics are that it is a "non-zero-sum"game: the best strategy for a given player is often one that increases the payoff to one's partner as well.
This book is intended for use in English courses in which the practice of composition is combined with the study of literature. It aims to give in brief space the principal requirements of plain English style.
The brain's primary objective is to carry out certain adaptive behaviors. It is fine-tuned by evolution to safely govern its carrier through life and to achieve successful reproduction. There are two alternatives to accomplish this task: by innate behavior programs (e.g. reflexes, stimulus-response chains etc.) adapted by evolution or acquired behavioral traits, adapted by experience.
The Misbehavior of Organisms: Keller Breland and Marian Breland. When what the experimenter wants and/or expects runs into the animal's instincts.
Among the APA divisions that advance psychology as a natural science, the Division for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior is perhaps unique in its emphasis on behavior as a subject matter in its own right.undertakes research on basic behavioral processes in a temporal and biological context.behavior-environment relationships of relatively immediate individual , social, and cultural importance.
Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. John B. Watson (1913).
This paper reports procedures for the direct application of the variables defining the paradigm for operant conditioning to human behavior and shows that human beings act very much indeed like experimental animals when they are subjected to the same exper imental treatments. It suggests that direct application of conditioning principles to some categories of human behavior may be justified. The procedures are simple and they may be followed by anyone, with a minimum of equipment.
Classic paper by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner(1920) where an infant, Albert B., was conditioned to show fear to various stimuli. It is hypothesized that many phobias are either direct or transferred conditioned emotional reactions.
Links for practioners of psychology.
Donahoe and Palmer's Learning and Complex Behavior presents a carefully reasoned case in favor of hierarchical integration based on a single, small set of organizing principles. The book gives serious attention to research findings that have been generated in the traditions of cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics. In doing this, however, it attempts to show explicitly how those findings can be interpreted as products of learning histories involving relatively simple and general processes of behavioral selection.
Despite continuing criticism of public education, experimentally demonstrated and field tested teaching methods have been ignored, rejected, and abandoned. Instead of a stable consensus regarding best teaching practices, there seems only an unending succession of innovationsInstead of effective interventions, it seeks the preservation of a postulated natural perfection.
The learning theory of Thorndike represents the original S-R framework of behavioral psychology: Learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and responses. Such associations or "habits" become strengthened or weakened by the nature and frequency of the S-R pairings.