Degree Finder

  1. 1

The Encyclopedia of Psychology
Page 108

Featured Schools

The Encyclopedia of Psychology is where we record and analyze the evolution of the field. On this page, you will find research submitted by third parties and reviewed by our team.

The information featured is meant for both casual consumption and professional research. We pride ourselves on hosting a strictly-reviewed collection of think pieces and data-driven investigations.

Submit to Add Your Site

If you have a resource you feel should be listed, please use this form to have it approved. We individually review each submission, so be sure to fill in every field to expedite the process. Should your resource pass muster, we will notify you of our plans to post it.

Managing Submissions

To make changes to a listed resource, please email us at with URL of the resource, the issue, the fix and your name. This will allow you to send your request directly to our editors, who can then adjust the resource in short order.

Disclaimer: While we thoroughly vet all third party resources, we are not responsible for the information contained within a source we do not own. The views presented in the encyclopedia are not necessarily the views of our organization. Beyond hosting links to their material, we have no affiliation with these entities.

At any time, the owner of a resource may request his or her material be removed from our encyclopedia. If you have submitted a resource that does not belong to you, please note that we will comply with all DRM requests.

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

Search Our Encyclopedia of Psychology Directory

  • Functional Context (T. Sticht)

    The functional context approach to learning stresses the importance of making learning relevant to the experience of learners and their work context.

    Added: July 22, 1999 Hits: 594

  • Intelligent Learning Environment

    Hierarchial stance of learning, and the measure.

    Added: July 22, 1999 Hits: 743

  • Positive Reinforcement: A Self-Instructional Exercise

    The purpose of this exercise is to teach the concept of positive reinforcement .In this tutorial, background material on positive reinforcement is omitted in favor of demonstrating some important features of self-instructional exercises that can be effectively used in distance education.

    Added: July 22, 1999 Hits: 3113

  • Situated Learning (J. Lave)

    Lave argues that learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs (i.e., it is situated). This contrasts with most classroom learning activities which involve knowledge which is abstract and out of context.

    Added: July 22, 1999 Hits: 582

  • Language

    Research on language acquisition/use can be divided into first and second language learning settings.

    Added: July 22, 1999 Hits: 5817

  • Vygotsky's Distinction Between Lower and Higher Mental Functions and Recent Studies on Infant Cognitive Development

    One of the major theoretical advances of Vygotsky's approach to cognitive development was his thesis that human mental functions were social in origins. Vygotsky introduced a distinction between lower mental functions (LMF's) and higher mental functions (HMF's) (Vygotsky, 1983).

    Added: July 22, 1999 Hits: 3507

  • Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning

    The major theorists for the development of operant conditioning are Edward Thorndike, John Watson, and B. F. Skinner. They proposed that learning is the result of the application of consequences; that is, learners begin to connect certain responses with certain stimuli. This connection causes the probability of the response to change (i.e., learning occurs.)

    Added: July 22, 1999 Hits: 8598

  • Operant Conditioning - Skinner

    The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment.

    Added: July 22, 1999 Hits: 8306

  • Legal Parameters of Informed Consent Applied to Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Past attempts by policy experts and scholars to synthesize the legal policy considerations behind a general limited right to refuse treatment and specific legislative efforts to regulate the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have met with considerable controversy, confrontation, and misunderstanding. It will be argued on the basis of the following legal analysis that the parameters of the law of informed consent and substituted decisionmaking, as articulated in the leading court decisions and state legislation, provide a reasonable framework upon which to develop sound policy judgments about the right to refuse electroconvulsive therapy.

    Added: July 22, 1999 Hits: 935

  • Memory

    Memory is one of the most important concepts in learning; if things are not remembered, no learning can take place.

    Added: July 22, 1999 Hits: 16439

  • Individual Differences in personality and motivation

    Fundamental questions of motivation are concerned with the direction, intensity, and duration of behavior. Within each of these broad categories are sub-questions such as the distinctions between quality and quantity, effort and arousal, and latency and persistence. Cutting across all these questions are the relative contributions of individual differences and situational constraints to the level of motivation and of subsequent performance.

    Added: July 22, 1999 Hits: 13067

  • Massage therapy for preterm and/or low birth-weight infants

    It has been argued that infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) are subject both to a highly stressful environment - continuous, high-intensity noise and bright light (Field 1990) - and to a lack of the tactile stimulation that they would otherwise experience in the womb or in general mothering care (Montagu 1978). Massage has been recommended as an intervention to promote growth and development of preterm and low-birth weight (LBW) infants.

    Added: July 22, 1999 Hits: 922