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Encyclopedia of Psychology

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  • APA Careers for the 21st Century pop
    This online brochure is a joint project of the Education Directorate and the Office of Public Communications. It is intended to help answer your questions about what working in psychology is like and what educational requirements are needed. This brochure covers the differences among the various degrees available in psychology, types of careers, and what psychologists do.
    (Added: 11-Feb-1999 Hits: 67668)

Environment Behavior Relationships : Addiction

  • A Primer on Drug Addiction pop
    Considerable confusion exists regarding the nature of addiction. The most common misunderstanding is that addiction refers to a state of physical dependence on a drug whereby discontinuing drug intake produces a withdrawal syndrome consisting of various somatic disturbances. Addiction is better defined as a behavioral syndrome where drug procurement and use seem to dominate the individualís motivation and where continued drug intake seems necessary to maintain optimal psychological functioning of the individual.
    (Added: 30-Jan-2000 Hits: 18288)

Environment Behavior Relationships : Adolescent

  • Surviving Adolescence pop
    The teenage years can be an emotional assault course for all concerned. Parents and their teenage offspring may seem to be at each other's throats. The special name for this stormy time is adolescence. However, recent studies have shown that most teenagers actually like their parents and feel that they get on well with them. So why do so many people find adolescence so difficult? It's a time of rapid physical development and deep emotional changes. These can be exciting, but also confusing and uncomfortable for child and parent alike. In this leaflet you will find information about these changes, the upheavals they can cause, the special problems that arise and ways in which they can be managed.
    (Added: 26-Mar-2000 Hits: 15661)
  • About Teen Depression pop
    Depressive disorders, which include major depressive disorder (unipolar depression), dysthymic disorder (chronic, mild depression), and bipolar disorder (manic-depression), can have far reaching effects on the functioning and adjustment of young people.
    (Added: 17-Jan-2003 Hits: 38638)

Environment Behavior Relationships : Animal Behavior-Instincts

  • Animal Learning & Cognition pop
    The experimental analysis of cognition and behavior in animals. Most of our discussions will focus on laboratory findings with animals, but as viewed from an evolutionary framework concerned with the natural histories of these animals. Besides discussing established results about cognition and intelligence in animals, an important emphasis is also placed on the logic and evidence used to justify these conclusions.
    (Added: 25-Jul-1999 Hits: 14343)

Environment Behavior Relationships : Attraction

  • Physical Attraction pop
    Levels of physical attractiveness have the potential to influence others in powerful ways. Attributions based on perceptions of physical attractiveness can either add to oneís status or stigmatize them. Males and females have different cognitive schemas about the attractiveness of the opposite sex.
    (Added: 21-Mar-1999 Hits: 36429)
  • Exotic Becomes Erotic pop
    A developmental theory of erotic/romantic attraction is presented that provides the same basic account for opposite-sex and same-sex desire in both men and women. It proposes that biological variables, such as genes, prenatal hormones, and brain neuroanatomy, do not code for sexual orientation per se but for childhood temperaments that influence a child's preferences for sex-typical or sex-atypical activities and peers. These preferences lead children to feel different from opposite- or same-sex peers--to perceive them as dissimilar, unfamiliar, and exotic. This, in turn, produces heightened nonspecific autonomic arousal that subsequently gets eroticized to that same class of dissimilar peers: Exotic becomes erotic. (in pdf)
    (Added: 21-Jul-1999 Hits: 15387)
  • Temporal Course of the Basic Components of Love Throughout Relationships pop
    In a recent work (C. Yela, 1996) a structural theoretical model of love was proposed, introducing some variations on Sternberg's model (1986), and affirming four basic dimensions: Erotic Passion, Romantic Passion, Intimacy and Commitment. In this work, we aim to test the dynamic side of the model, that is, the temporal course of the components throughout a relationship. Thus, we applied the same scales (including items from Sternberg and other authors) to a sample of 412 subjects. Global analysis of the evolution of the components seems to suggest the existence of three main stages in love relationships: "Being in love", "Passional love" and "Companionate love".
    (Added: 28-Mar-2000 Hits: 12679)
  • Attachment Theory pop
    Attachment theory is meant to describe and explain people's enduring patterns of relationships from birth to death. This domain overlaps considerably with that of Interpersonal Theory. Because attachment is thought to have an evolutionary basis, attachment theory is also related to Sociobiology.
    (Added: 29-Mar-2000 Hits: 23419)

Environment Behavior Relationships : Child

Environment Behavior Relationships : Consumer

  • Effects of Music in a Retail Setting on Real & Perceived Shopping Times pop
    This paper extends research linking shopping behavior to environmental factors through changes in emotional states. With time fixed or variable during a simulated shopping experiment, shoppers were exposed to music varying by degree of familiarity. Afterward, subjects reported their perceptions of shopping duration, their emotional states, and their merchandise evaluations. Analyses revealed that individuals reported themselves as shopping longer when exposed to familiar music but actually shopped longer when exposed to unfamiliar music.
    (Added: 1-Nov-2000 Hits: 13664)
  • Changing Minds pop
    World's largest site (1500+ pages) on all aspects of how we change one anothers' minds. From psychology theories to practical applications.
    (Added: 26-Sep-2004 Hits: 12369)

Environment Behavior Relationships : Emotion

  • Basic Emotions pop
    Many psychologists have claimed that certain emotions are more fundamental than others, often for very different reasons. According to the PEN Model, emotions arise as aspects of a person's personality. Many Personality Disorders include problems with emotions, in addition to problems with thoughts and behavior.
    (Added: 29-Mar-2000 Hits: 18902)

Environment Behavior Relationships : Forensic

Environment Behavior Relationships : Human Factors

Environment Behavior Relationships : Learning

Environment Behavior Relationships : Measurement

Environment Behavior Relationships : Memory

  • Memory: How Do We Remember What We Know? pop
    This chapter discusses the capabilities and limitations of several components of the memory system. Sensory information storage and short-term memory are beset by severe limitations of capacity, while long-term memory, for all practical purposes, has a virtually infinite capacity. With long-term memory, the problems concern getting information into it and retrieving information once it is there, not physical limits on the amount of information that may be stored.
    (Added: 4-Jun-2000 Hits: 17673)

Environment Behavior Relationships : Motivation

  • Educational Psychology Interactive: Motivation pop
    Most motivation theorists assume that motivation is involved in the performance of all learned responses; that is, a learned behavior will not occur unless it is energized. The major question among psychologists, in general, is whether motivation is a primary or secondary influence on behavior. That is, are changes in behavior better explained by principles of environmental/ecological influences, perception, memory, cognitive development, or emotion.
    (Added: 23-Jul-1999 Hits: 27376)
  • Motivation Theory and Practice pop
    Our articles on motivation theory and practice concentrate on various theories regarding human nature in general and motivation in particular. Included are articles on the practical aspects of motivation in the workplace and the research that has been undertaken in this field, notably by Douglas McGregor (theory y), Frederick Herzberg (two factor motivation hygiene theory,) Abraham Maslow (theory z, hierarchy of needs), Elton Mayo (Hawthorne Experiments) Chris Argyris (achievement motivation) Rensis Likert and David McClelland.
    (Added: 9-Apr-2000 Hits: 29513)
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs pop
    According to Maslow, there are general types of needs (physiological, safety, love, and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. He called these needs "deficiency needs." As long as we are motivated to satisfy these cravings, we are moving towards growth, toward self-actualization. Satisfying needs is healthy, blocking gratification makes us sick or evil.
    (Added: 1-Dec-2000 Hits: 21510)

Environment Behavior Relationships : Sensation and Perception

  • Sensation and Perception pop
    Sensory capabilities are influenced by many factors, including genetics, age, sex, individual experiences, and current surroundings. These affect the ability to detect, recognize, perceive and respond to our chemosensory environment.
    (Added: 31-Jan-2000 Hits: 24384)

Environment Behavior Relationships : Social

Environment Behavior Relationships : Sports

  • A Psychoanalytic Perspective on Anxiety in Athletes pop
    A great deal of the literature on the relationship between anxiety and performance has come from a cognitive-behavioral perspective. This paper examines the relationship between the two constructs from a psychodynamic perspective. Included is a discussion of winning and the anxiety of separation from an object relations perspective, the dread of success, self psychology, Freudian instinct theory, and the secondary gain that is found in defeat.
    (Added: 2-May-2000 Hits: 21797)

Organizations : PhD Programs

Paradigms and Theories : Behavior Analysis

  • Behaviorism Tutorial pop
    Behaviorism is generally characterized as the viewpoint holding that the appropriate subject matter for psychology is behavior and the appropriate methods for psychology are those of the natural sciences. The objective of this tutorial is to promote an understanding of the differences between two of these forms of behaviorism - methodological behaviorism and radical behaviorism.
    (Added: 7-Feb-2000 Hits: 15781)
  • B. F. Skinner Foundation pop
    The B. F. Skinner Foundation was established in 1987 to publish significant literary and scientific works in the analysis of behavior and to educate both professionals and the public about the science of behavior.
    (Added: 20-Feb-2000 Hits: 19720)

Paradigms and Theories : Cognition

  • Cognitive Social Theories pop
    There are two early cognitive social theories, those of Bandura and Mischel. Bandura pioneered the study of observational learning (or vicarious conditioning). He believed that, rather than operating in a mechanistic way, reinforcement provides information about future reinforcement. Such information can be gleaned by watching models' behavior rather than by behaving in a particular way and experiencing the consequences oneself. Note how this definition of reinforcement differs from that of Skinner, for whom one had to experience reinforcement personally to increase a target behavior. Note also that for Bandura, thinking is not an irrelevant activity that occurs within a "black box," but rather is an important object of study in its own right.
    (Added: 29-Mar-2000 Hits: 19328)

People and History

  • Classics in the History of Psychology pop
    Classics in the History of Psychology is an effort to make the full texts of a large number of historically significant public domain documents from the scholarly literature of psychology and allied disciplines available on the World Wide Web.
    (Added: 26-Nov-1998 Hits: 17342)
  • Albert Bandura pop
    Albert Bandura has had an enormous impact on personality theory and therapy. His straightforward, behaviorist-like style makes good sense to most people. His action-oriented, problem-solving approach likewise appeals to those who want to get things done, rather than philosophize about ids, archetypes, actualization, freedom, and all the many other mentalistic constructs personologists tend to dwell on.
    (Added: 30-Nov-1998 Hits: 21001)
  • A Brief Overview and History of Memetics pop
    The principle of evolution by selection to understand the continuous change in cultural behaviors. It defines the meme as a replicator, and adds interaction to account for evolution by natural or artificial selection.Selection processes in science and biology are described using exactly similar definitions. Perhaps the most popular informal use of the term describes memes as 'viruses of the mind.' Parallels to both biological and computer virus varieties have been drawn.
    (Added: 5-Dec-1998 Hits: 27637)
  • B. F. Skinner pop
    B. F. Skinner?s theories are based on operant conditioning. The organism encounters a stimulus, called a reinforcing stimulus, or simply a reinforcer. This special stimulus has the effect of increasing the operant, the behavior occurring just before the reinforcer. This is operant conditioning: ?the behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organisms tendency to repeat the behavior in the future.?
    (Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 16315)
  • Anna Freud pop
    Anna Freud, Sigmund's daughter, is probably best known for her book The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense, in which she gives a particularly clear description of how the defenses work, including some special attention to adolescents' use of defenses.
    (Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 16345)
  • Erik Erikson pop
    Erikson is a Freudian ego-psychologist. This means that he accepts Freud's ideas as basically correct, including the more debatable ideas such as the Oedipal complex, and accepts as well the ideas about the ego that were added by other Freudian loyalists such as Heinz Hartmann and, of, course, Anna Freud.
    (Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 15289)
  • Alfred Adler pop
    Alfred Adler postulates a single "drive" or motivating force behind all our behavior and experience. By the time his theory had gelled into its most mature form, he called that motivating force the striving for perfection.
    (Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 16419)
  • Abraham Maslow pop
    Maslow created the hierarchy of needs. Beyond the details of air, water, food, and sex, he laid out five broader layers: the physiological needs, the needs for safety and security, the needs for love and belonging, the needs for esteem, and the need to actualize the self, in that order.
    (Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 32994)

Publications : General

  • American Psychological Association pop
    The American Psychological Association (APA), in Washington, DC, is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States and is the world's largest association of psychologists. APA's membership includes more than 155,000 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students. Through its divisions in 50 subfields of psychology and affiliations with 59 state, territorial, and Canadian provincial associations, APA works to advance psychology as a science, as a profession, and as a means of promoting human welfare.
    (Added: 22-Nov-1998 Hits: 12981)

Resources : Doing Research

Resources : Ethical Issues

  • Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Members of the American Psychological Association pop
    A random sample of 1,319 members of the American Psychological Association (APA) were asked to describe incidents that they found ethically challenging or troubling. Responses from 679 psychologists described 703 incidents in 23 categories. This process of gathering critical incidents from the general membership, pioneered by those who developed APA's original code of ethics, may be useful in considering possible revisions of the code and preserving APA's unique approach to identifying ethical principles that address realistically the emerging dilemmas that the diverse membership confronts in the day-to-day work of psychology.
    (Added: 3-Apr-2004 Hits: 17448)

Resources : Humor

  • HumorMatters pop
    This site is designed to provide information and resources about the healing power of therapeutic humor. Includes articles, references, links, jokes, calendar of workshops and conferences.
    (Added: 9-Feb-1999 Hits: 16263)

Resources : News

Resources : Reference

Resources : Statistics

Resources : Teaching


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