- A Brief Overview and History of Memetics
The principle of evolution by selection to understand the continuous change in cultural behaviors.
It defines the meme as a replicator, and adds interaction to account for evolution by natural or
artificial selection.Selection processes in science and biology are described using exactly similar
definitions. Perhaps the most popular informal use of the term describes memes as 'viruses of the
mind.' Parallels to both biological and computer virus varieties have been drawn.
(Added: 5-Dec-1998 Hits: 27836)
- Abraham Maslow
Maslow created the hierarchy of needs. Beyond the details of air, water, food, and sex, he laid out five broader layers: the physiological needs, the needs for safety and security, the needs for love and belonging, the needs for esteem, and the need to actualize the self, in that order.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 33164)
- Albert Bandura
Albert Bandura has had an enormous impact on personality theory and therapy. His straightforward,
behaviorist-like style makes good sense to most people. His action-oriented, problem-solving approach
likewise appeals to those who want to get things done, rather than philosophize about ids, archetypes,
actualization, freedom, and all the many other mentalistic constructs personologists tend to dwell on.
(Added: 30-Nov-1998 Hits: 21091)
- Alfred Adler
Alfred Adler postulates a single "drive" or motivating force behind all our behavior and experience. By the time his theory had gelled into its
most mature form, he called that motivating force the striving for perfection.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 16506)
- Anna Freud
Anna Freud, Sigmund's daughter, is probably best known for her book The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense, in which she gives a particularly clear description of how the defenses work, including some special attention to adolescents' use of defenses.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 16487)
- B. F. Skinner
B. F. Skinner?s theories are based on operant conditioning. The organism encounters a stimulus, called a reinforcing stimulus, or simply a reinforcer. This special stimulus has the effect of increasing the operant, the
behavior occurring just before the reinforcer. This is operant conditioning: ?the behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the
consequence modifies the organisms tendency to repeat the behavior in the future.?
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 16395)
- B. F. Skinner Foundation
The B. F. Skinner Foundation was established in 1987 to publish significant literary and scientific works in the analysis of behavior and to educate both professionals and the public about the science of behavior.
(Added: 17-Jan-2000 Hits: 4911)
- Barnard College History of Psychology Collection
This collection is dedicated to the preservation of the history and apparatus from the early days of the Barnard College
Psychology Department. Barnard College was founded in 1889 and examples of the apparatus that has survived from those
early days have been photographed and documented and placed on the internet in these pages.
(Added: 2-Jul-1999 Hits: 6111)
- Burrhus F. Skinner
In dealing with Skinner, we are concerned with a theorist who now espouses no theory, a systematist whose system is still developing, and a constructive thinker some of whose most important contributions have been those of a critic.
(Added: 11-Dec-1998 Hits: 5559)
- Carl Rogers
Roger'se theory is built on a single ?force of life? he calls the actualizing tendency. It can be defined as the built-in motivation present in every life-form to develop its potentials to the
fullest extent possible.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 8900)
- Classical Rorschach
These pages are devoted to the presentation and promotion of the Rorschach method, concentrating on the way it has been practiced within the classical European tradition - from Hermann Rorschach himself in 1921, via Ewald Bohm in the 1950's, 1960's and 1970's, and to the contemporary workers in the Rorschach-Bohm tradition.
(Added: 8-Nov-1999 Hits: 4229)
- Classics in the History of Psychology
Classics in the History of Psychology is an effort to make the full texts of a large number of historically significant public domain documents from the scholarly literature of psychology and allied disciplines available on the World Wide Web.
(Added: 26-Nov-1998 Hits: 17391)
- Elizabeth Loftus
Dr. Elizabeth F. Loftus, a professor of psychology and expert researcher on the malleability
and reliability of repressed memories, is an instrumental figure in current cognitive
psychology. Loftus' work has made a huge contribution to psychology and opened a unique
and controversial aspect of psychology and memory.
(Added: 25-Nov-1998 Hits: 9130)
- Erich Fromm
Fromm's theory is a rather unique blend of Freud and Marx. Freud, of course, emphasized the unconscious,
biological drives, repression, and so on. In other words, Freud postulated that our characters were determined by biology. Marx, on the other hand, saw people as determined by their society, and most especially by their economic systems.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 6670)
- Erich Fromm
Erich Fromm arguably has been one of the most outstanding figures of 20th Century humanism. Fromm has been called "one of the most influential and popular psychoanalysts in America."
(Added: 7-Mar-2001 Hits: 5058)
- Erik Erikson
Erikson is a Freudian ego-psychologist. This means that he accepts Freud's ideas as basically correct, including the more debatable ideas such as the Oedipal complex, and accepts as well the ideas about the ego that were added by other Freudian loyalists such as Heinz Hartmann
and, of, course, Anna Freud.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 15354)
- Freud Museum London
Freud Museum London. Last home of Sigmund Freud.
Contains study and library, collection of antiquities and Freud psychoanalytic couch.
(Added: 3-Aug-1999 Hits: 5219)
- George Kelly
Kelly organized his theory into a fundamental postulate and 11 corollaries. His fundamental postulate says this: "A person's processes are
psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events."
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 4108)
- Gordon Allport
One thing that motivates human beings is the tendency to satisfy biological survival needs, which Allport referred to as opportunistic
functioning. He noted that opportunistic functioning can be characterized as reactive, past-oriented, and, of course, biological.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 5226)
- Grace Helen Kent
Kent worked on studying association at Kings Park (New York) State Hospital on Long Island, resulting in the famous
Kent-Rosanoff Free Association Test. It was a Psychiatric screening instrument that was one of the first to have objective scoring and objective norms.
(Added: 18-Feb-2000 Hits: 3450)
- Hans Eysenck
Eysenck?s theory is based primarily on physiology and genetics. Although he is a behaviorist who considers learned habits of great importance, he considers personality differences as growing out of our genetic inheritance. He is, therefore, primarily interested in what is usually called temperament.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 5471)
- Harry F. Harlow
Harry F. Harlow was an American Psychologist who provided a new understanding of human behavior and development through studies of social behavior of monkeys. His research contributions (in the areas of learning, motivation, and affection) have major relevance for general and child psychology.
(Added: 18-Jan-2000 Hits: 6966)
- History of psychiatry
History of psychiatry. Bibliography, biographies, texts, links, photo gallery, etc., Kraepelin, Pinel, Griesinger, Ey, Magmam,etc. In spanish.
(Added: 6-Feb-2001 Hits: 6064)
- Howard Gardner
Educated at Harvard University, Gardner has written many books in developmental psychology highlighting his work on the development of creativity in children and adults. In Gardner's 1983 book, Frames of Mind: Theories of Multiple Intelligence, Gardner explores the multifarious nature of human intelligence [and] posits that humans have a family of seven intelligences that can be divided into three main groups: object-related intelligence, which includes mathematics and logic; object-free intelligence, including music and language; and personal intelligence, or the psychological perception we have of ourselves and others.
(Added: 16-Jun-2000 Hits: 7731)
- Jacob Robert Kantor
Kantor was a prominent systematic
psychologist who organized scientific
values into a coherent system of
psychology. From the interbehavioral
perspective,self-actional causes, whether
fictional events (e.g., mentalism) or
fictional powers attributed to otherwise
actual events (brain as cause of behavior),
are anathema to science of psychology.
(Added: 12-Dec-1998 Hits: 2363)
- Jean Piaget
Piaget theorized on thought-processes of doing science, and the nature of
thought itself, especially in the development of thinking. He called it genetic epistemology, meaning the study of the development of knowledge.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 10089)
- Karen Horney
Horney's theory is perhaps the best theory of neurosis we have. First, she offered a different way of viewing neurosis. She saw it as much more continuous with normal life than previous theorists. Specifically, she saw neurosis as an attempt to make life bearable, as a way of
"interpersonal control and coping."
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 7801)
- L. L. Thurstone
Thurstone factor-analyzed intelligence tests and tests of perception. In the area of intelligence, his theory was that intelligence is made up of several primary mental abilities rather than a general and several specific factors. He was among the first to propose and demonstrate that there are numerous ways in which a person can be intelligent.
(Added: 1-Mar-2000 Hits: 2833)
- Life and Works
Lifes and Works of principal psychoanalyst, psychologists and psychiatrists (Freud, Lacan, Kraepelin, Jung, Klein, etc.). In Spanish.
(Added: 23-Sep-1999 Hits: 5129)
- Ludwig Binswanger
Binswanger and other existential psychologists make a point of discovering their client's world view (or world design). This is not a matter
of discussing a person's religion or philosophy of life, necessarily. Binswanger wants to know about your Lebenswelt, Husserl's word for
"lived world." He is looking for a concrete, everyday world view.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 2183)
- Medard Boss
Boss has studied dreams more than any other existentialist, and considers them important in therapy. But instead of interpreting them as Freudians or Jungians do, he allows them to reveal their own meanings.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 2989)
- Raymond B. Cattell
Since the beginning of his career, Raymond Cattell searched for a comprehensive theory of human behavior through the use of multi-factor analysis. He regarded behavior as primarily organic in nature because of his British psychological training, which stressed biological influences on behavior.
(Added: 1-Feb-2000 Hits: 4643)
- Rollo May
Rollo May is the best known American existential psychologist. Much of his thinking can be understood by reading about existentialism in
general, and the overlap between his ideas and the ideas of Ludwig Binswanger is great.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 3993)
- Sigmund Freud: Conflict & Culture (Library of Congress Exhibition)
Few figures have had so decisive and fundamental an influence on the course of modern cultural history as Sigmund Freud. Yet few figures also have inspired such sustained controversy and intense debate. Freud's legacy continues to be hotly contested. Our notions of identity, memory, childhood, sexuality, and, most generally, of meaning have been shaped in relation to--and often in opposition to--Freud's work.
(Added: 17-Feb-2000 Hits: 5215)
- Snygg and Combs
The phenomenal field is our subjective reality, the world we are aware of, including physical objects and people and their behaviors, thoughts,
images, fantasies, feelings, and ideas like justice, freedom, equality, and so on. Snygg and Combs emphasize, above all else, that it is this phenomenal field that is the true subject-matter for psychology.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 1693)
- Stanley Milgram
Stanley Milgram is a pioneer in psychology who is well remembered for his work with obedience to authority. He looked at the
reasons that the average person would obey an authority figure although they knew that they were harming an innocent third
party. This research was prompted by the events of the Holocaust and later the Nuremberg Trials in which Eichmann defended his actions of genocide as following orders.
(Added: 12-Feb-2000 Hits: 7214)
- The Jung Page
Articles related to Jungian psychology, psychoanalysis, clinical themes, and to psychology and culture. Most extensive resources in Jungian psychology online.
(Added: 19-Sep-1999 Hits: 4420)
- Viktor Frankl
Viktor Frankl is nearly as well known for certain clinical details of his approach as for his overall theory. He believes
that the existential vacuum is often filled with certain neurotic ?vicious cycles.? For example, there is the idea of anticipatory anxiety:
Someone may be so afraid of getting certain anxiety-related symptoms that getting those symptoms becomes inevitable.
(Added: 29-Dec-1999 Hits: 4007)
- W. David Pierce
Home page of Dr. W. David Pierce who, together with Dr. Frank Epling, developed a theory of activity anorexia that accounts for the animal results and provides a bio-behavioral explanation for human anorexia.
(Added: 24-Jun-2007 Hits: 944)
- William McDougall
William McDougall is considered by some to have been the foremost psychologist of all English-speaking countries. He has contributed significantly to more branches and departments of psychology than anyone else writing in English. He is the exponent of hormic psychology, the central idea being that there is an end or purpose which goads us to action, without any real knowledge of its nature, and often without benefit or even thought of pleasure. Human progress can only be determined in terms of "horme" or "drive". He theorized that human behavior is determined by both instinctive and intentional strivings.
(Added: 16-Jun-2000 Hits: 4406)