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Encyclopedia of Psychology

  Top : Paradigms and Theories : Cognition
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  • Cognition Research
    Cognition Research is a non-profit organisation researching cognition in the broad sense that includes any kind of information processing in any kind of system, either natural or artificial. Given the orientation of this research, the terms computing and cognition are largely interchangeable, although computing has an association with artificial systems and cognition may imply information processing in natural systems.
    URL: http://www.cognitionresearch.org.uk/
    (Added: 4-Jul-2002 Hits: 11452)
  • Cognitive Social Theories pop
    There are two early cognitive social theories, those of Bandura and Mischel. Bandura pioneered the study of observational learning (or vicarious conditioning). He believed that, rather than operating in a mechanistic way, reinforcement provides information about future reinforcement. Such information can be gleaned by watching models' behavior rather than by behaving in a particular way and experiencing the consequences oneself. Note how this definition of reinforcement differs from that of Skinner, for whom one had to experience reinforcement personally to increase a target behavior. Note also that for Bandura, thinking is not an irrelevant activity that occurs within a "black box," but rather is an important object of study in its own right.
    URL: http://www.personalityresearch.org/cogsocial.html
    (Added: 29-Mar-2000 Hits: 19391)
  • Connectionist Models of Mental Disorder
    Recent connectionist and "neural network" models of behavior, information processing patterns, and brain activity present in people with cognitive, affective, brain, and behavioral disorders are reviewed on this web site. Ways that assumptions regarding normal and disordered behavior may be represented in connectionist models are discussed for features of various disorders. Similarities and differences between the models and criteria for their evaluation are presented, and suggestions for inclusion of information which may help to make these models more directly comparable in the future are considered.
    URL: http://archive.cnbc.cmu.edu/Resources/disordermodels/
    (Added: 6-Apr-2000 Hits: 4874)
  • Interpreting Cognitive Phenomena: Review of Donahoe and Palmer
    Donahoe and Palmer's Learning and Complex Behavior presents a carefully reasoned case in favor of hierarchical integration based on a single, small set of organizing principles. The book gives serious attention to research findings that have been generated in the traditions of cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics. In doing this, however, it attempts to show explicitly how those findings can be interpreted as products of learning histories involving relatively simple and general processes of behavioral selection.
    URL: http://seab.envmed.rochester.edu/abstracts/jeababstracts/63/%2063-347.htm
    (Added: 9-Dec-1998 Hits: 2162)
  • Neural Mechanisms of Timing
    A crucial step in timing research is to isolate clock components from other sources of temporal variability. Significant progress has been made both behaviorally and neurologically. More elaborate experimental designs have helped researchers separate timing mechanisms from motoric, sensory, and mnemonic processes. Marked similarities in the temporal characteristics of the clock in perception and production tasks implicate a common timing system.
    URL: http://cogprints.org/12/
    (Added: 26-Jun-2000 Hits: 1255)
  • The Psychology of Folk Psychology
    The phrase 'folk psychology' often bears a narrower sense than the one intended here. It usually designates a theory about mental phenomena that common folk allegedly hold, a theory in terms of which mental concepts are understood. In the present usage, 'folk psychology' is not so restricted. It refers to the ordinary person's repertoire of mental concepts, whether or not this repertoire invokes a theory.
    URL: http://users.ecs.soton.ac.uk/harnad/Papers/Py104/goldman.psyc.html
    (Added: 9-Feb-2000 Hits: 2424)

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