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Encyclopedia of Psychology

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  • Avian Visual Cogntion
    This cyberbook brings together 31 of the top international scientists working in the area of comparative cognition to create a widely available summary of current advances in our knowledge about visual cognition in birds. Each chapter highlights a different aspect of the basic processes within the general area of visual cognition and action.
    (Added: 19-Sep-2001 Hits: 4061)
  • Cognitive Psychology Online Lab
    A collection of classic experiments in cognitive psychology. Individuals can collect their own data and compare it to the classic results. Topics covered include: mental rotation, the Sternberg task, receptive fields, the Brown-Peterson task, serial position in immediate memory, visual search, and others.
    (Added: 30-Dec-1998 Hits: 8881)
  • Hierarchical Stimulus Processing by Pigeons
    Understanding how visual stimuli are perceived, discriminated, recognized, and ultimately come to control behavior is one of the central issues in animal cognition. This chapter reviews recent experiments from my laboratory looking at how pigeons process hierarchically-arranged information presented at different spatial scales. Results are presented from three different paradigms that tested a variety of texture stimuli, hierarchical figural stimuli, and dynamic object-like stimuli.
    (Added: 19-Sep-2001 Hits: 1552)
  • Map Makers Can Avoid Confusing the Color Blind
    Color blindness is not a single problem but a variety of problems that affect color vision. Only a very small portion of people do not see color at all, but view the world in shades of gray. The most common type of color blindness is red/green, which has two forms. Some people are missing red receptor cones and others are missing green receptor cones. People with different forms of red/green color blindness have slight differences in the way they perceive color. Another form of color blindness is blue/yellow, which is less common. While only 8 percent of men are color-blind, they make up 95 percent of the 9,000,000 people in the U.S. who suffer color-vision impairment.
    (Added: 29-Apr-2000 Hits: 2671)
  • Neuroscience
    Perception of tastes, odors and chemical irritants begins with the activation of sensory cells in the mouth, nose, and on the skin. These receptor cells have specialized features that make them sensitive to particular chemicals. Chemosensory stimulation triggers the cascade of molecular and cellular events that translate or "transduce" information about the stimulus into a signal for the nervous system. The encoded information is then transmitted to appropriate brain areas to initiate and maintain the sensory experience.
    (Added: 31-Jan-2000 Hits: 7483)
  • Neuroscience for Kids - Synesthesia
    Synesthesia is a condition in which one sense (for example, hearing) is simultaneously perceived as if by one or more additional senses such as sight. Another form of synesthesia joins objects such as letters, shapes, numbers or people's names with a sensory perception such as smell, color or flavor.
    (Added: 5-May-2006 Hits: 2911)
  • Nutrition and Appetite
    The chemical senses are most fully engaged when we eat and drink because the flavors of foods and beverages are a combination of taste, smell and, depending on cuisine, chemosensory irritation. One's choice of foods, which is a crucial determinant of nutritional status, is guided largely by flavor. However, the nutritional impact of flavor goes beyond the choice of food. Activation of the chemical senses by food triggers reflexes that influence digestion and metabolism of nutrients. Changes in body metabolism, in turn, modulate responses to the flavor of food and, along with chemosensory cues, shape food preferences.
    (Added: 31-Jan-2000 Hits: 2988)
  • Object Recognition
    This chapter addresses a number of fundamental issues relating to object recognition, concentrating particularly on an avian species, the pigeon. The task is to determine whether the basic process of object recognition in pigeons is at all similar to the most probable process that has been proposed for humans. In order to demonstrate the conditions under which object recognition may or may not occur, a number of illustrated examples will be provided.
    (Added: 19-Sep-2001 Hits: 2873)
  • Perceptual Analysis of Automobile Accidents
    In this article, we shall provide a brief overview of human information processing limitations and explain how they can contribute to road accidents. This is a "first-principles" approach to accident investigation because it draws on knowledge of basic human psychological processes. Instead of looking at the driver from the outside, we try to understand his/her mental processing and how it interacts with the environment.
    (Added: 30-Apr-2000 Hits: 2761)
  • Psychological Investigations of Unconscious Perception
    This paper reviews the history of psychological investigations of unconscious perception and summarizes the current status of experimental research in this area of investigation. The research findings described in the paper illustrate how it is possible to distinguish experimentally between conscious and unconscious perception. The most successful experimental strategy has been to show that a stimulus can have qualitatively different consequences on cognitive and affective reactions depending on whether it was consciously or unconsciously perceived. (in pdf)
    (Added: 29-Apr-2000 Hits: 5946)
  • Sensation and Perception pop
    Sensory capabilities are influenced by many factors, including genetics, age, sex, individual experiences, and current surroundings. These affect the ability to detect, recognize, perceive and respond to our chemosensory environment.
    (Added: 31-Jan-2000 Hits: 24384)
  • Smell and Smell Disorders
    The sense of smell is part of our chemical sensing system, or the chemosenses. Sensory cells in our nose, mouth, and throat have a role in helping us interpret smells, as well as taste flavors. Microscopic molecules released by the substances around us (foods, flowers, etc.) stimulate these sensory cells. Once the cells detect the molecules they send messages to our brains, where we identify the smell.
    (Added: 31-Jan-2000 Hits: 2475)
  • Subliminal Perception
    Subliminal perception occurs whenever stimuli presented below the threshold or limen for awareness are found to influence thoughts, feelings, or actions. The term subliminal perception was originally used to describe situations in which weak stimuli were perceived without awareness. In recent years, the term has been applied more generally to describe any situation in which unnoticed stimuli are perceived.
    (Added: 28-Dec-2003 Hits: 4274)
  • Synaesthesia Research Centre
    Synaesthesia is a condition in which ordinary stimuli lead to extraordinary experiences. There are many types of synaesthesia. Some synaesthetes have conscious experiences of vivid colors when listening to music or hearing other types of sounds. The most common type of synaesthesia is letter/digit color synaesthesia.
    (Added: 28-Dec-2003 Hits: 1132)
  • Taste and Taste Disorders
    Taste belongs to our chemical sensing system, or the chemosenses. The complex process of tasting begins when tiny molecules released by the substances around us stimulate special cells in the nose, mouth, or throat. These special sensory cells transmit messages through nerves to the brain, where specific tastes are identified.
    (Added: 26-Apr-2002 Hits: 2512)
  • The Physiology of Perception
    The brain transforms sensory messages into conscious perceptions almost instantly. Chaotic, collective activity involving millions of neurons seems essential for such rapid recognition. A 1991 Scientific American article by Walter J. Freeman.
    (Added: 9-Apr-2000 Hits: 6248)
  • The Synesthetic Experience
    Synesthesia is an involuntary joining in which the real information of one sense is accompanied by a perception in another sense. In addition to being involuntary, this additional perception is regarded by the synesthete as real, often outside the body, instead of imagined in the mind's eye.
    (Added: 4-Jan-2000 Hits: 1528)
  • TIDA: A Children's Test to Assess Dysfunctions in the Perception of Colour
    After reviewing the controlling factors of alterations in colour perception, their main characteristics and relevance for primary education, we report the results of applying a new test (TIDA) to a population of schoolchildren with ages ranging from 5 to 7 years. Its diagnostic validity and attractiveness to children are compared with two other tests (Ishihara and CUT). TIDA was highly appealing to children and gave a fair estimate of the severity of colour blindness, though its power to discriminate among different types of this problem has still to be improved.
    (Added: 28-Mar-2000 Hits: 1088)

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